The Jewish community of Frauenkirchen has existed since 1714, and was one of the “Seven Communities” of the Burgenland region. Jews who were expelled from Vienna and other places settled in this region. Under the protection of the House of Esterházy, a Jewish quarter with a synagogue built in 1840 and school could be established in Frauenkirchen. There was also a mikvah (Jewish ritual bath) and a Jewish cemetery. The Jewish community of Frauenkirchen maintained several cultural and welfare organizations: Kinyan Olam, Chevrat Nashim, Mirpa laNefesh, Yesodei haTora, Zedeka, Ez Chayim, Agudat Israel, Chevra Kaddisha (burial society), Shomrei Tora and Miriam, a girls group. The relatively large number of societies and their diversity testify to the rich Jewish life of the community.
The Ghetto of Frauenkirchen burned down twice in the 18th century. The Jewish community also included members living in Andau, Apetlon, Gols, Illmitz, Neusiedl am See, Pamhagen, Tadten and Wallern. In 1932 there were 359 Jewish inhabitants in Frauenkirchen.
The annexation of Austria had immediate and most harsh consequences for the Jews of Frauenkirchen. 80 families, some 336 persons, were locked in a cow shed where they had to stand without being given any food, they were beaten, and all papers and property were taken from them. The head of the community, Dr. Weihs, had to promise to take steps for their immediate emigration. Some families were taken in March to the Czech and Hungarian borders where they were to stay in no-man’s land or driven by the SS into barbed wire. Some were able to reach Yugoslavia or Czechoslovakia. 60 families were transferred to Vienna in April 1938.