A Hebrew source, the Selicha of Isaak bar Yacov, mentions the persecution of Jews in Wiener Neustadt in 1230. In the same spirit, Duke Friedrich promised in a privilege granted to Wiener Neustadt in 1239 to exclude Jews from public offices.
The purchase of a Meil le Torah (covering for Torah scrolls) for 75 Marks, mentioned in Jewish correspondence concerning a law-suit, shows that the community must have been rather wealthy.
The social stratification included: the parnassim – Judenmeister (representatives of the Jewish community); the scholars and advanced students; members of the community who earned their living in moneylending and trading; and the poor.
The Jews of Wiener Neustadt were active mostly as moneylenders, but also traded with goods such as precious metals, cloths, cattle and horses. There were two physicians, a surgeon, rabbis and students and employees of the community. Jewish court.
Wiener Neustadt boasted several yeshivot with synagogues for the rabbis and their students. The “Pious of Wiener Neustadt” were proverbial; the most prominent were Schalom of Neustadt and Rabbi Israel Isserlein.
In the 1350s a long quarrel was conducted between rabbi Meisterlein and three young scholars and their respective followers. The young scholars opened their own house of study and studied halakhic (Jewish law) literature neglected by rabbi Meisterlein. Rabbi Meisterlein feared a loss in authority as the rabbi of the community. Rabbi Isserlein asked for mediation, but eventually conceded: “I want peace and they (the Jews of Wiener Neustadt) want war.”
In the second half of the 15th century, the community of Wiener Neustadt served as a kind of “suburb” for the Jews of Styria. The Jewish court served as a court of appeal for Jews from other places. In 1494 nearly the whole Jewish quarter was destroyed by fire.
In the older Jewish quarter were the synagogue (today Allerheiligenplatz 1), the hospital (today Allerheiligenplatz 4, burned down in 1494, not rebuilt), a mikve (Jewish ritual bath) and the slaughterhouse; in the newer quarter, there was a warm bath and a tower. The Jewish quarter until 1496 was constantly settled and comprised about 35 Jewish houses. In 1480 at least 300 Jews lived in Wiener Neustadt.